Sudan IV was discovered in adulterated palm oil. Sudan dyes are considered harmful to human health as it contains chemicals that could cause cancer.
The oil palm is West Africa's most important oil-producing plant. The fruit makes two distinct oil types, the orange-red crude palm oil extracted from the mesocarp and brownish-yellow oil palm kernel oil extracted from the seeds(kernel). The adulteration of palm oil practiced by producers makes the oil appear more reddish. The red dye is the preferred and most widely used impurities because of their abundance and low cost. Crude palm oil can be successfully adulterated with red dye. Adulterated oil can remain undetected by consumers.
Adulteration of palm oil is a recurring issue that has been taking place in many countries. Sudan dye used as palm oil colorant has adverse effects on albino rats' hepatic functions and could be harmful to human consumers. This calls for more studies and enactments of restrictive laws on palm oil's public consumption with Sudan dye colorant. Sudan dyes I, II, III, IV, and their degradation products are considered harmful to human health as they affect liver functions adversely. It contains teratogenicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity, which could lead to cancer.