The extensive burning of firecrackers leads to an elevated concentration of pollutants in the air, causing short-term air quality deterioration.
A study conducted on the estimates of air pollution in Delhi during the Diwali festival revealed that though firecrackers were not the sole reason for the air pollution, the PM2.5 particulate concentration was added over two days after the Diwali celebrations. In two out of the four years that were taken into account for the study, it was found that the concentrations of PM2.5 would increase by almost 40% by the second day of the festival and that it would go back to existing background levels soon after the end of Diwali.
Another study conducted on particulate matter production by bursting different types of crackers showed that the firecrackers selected for the study produced extremely high levels of personal exposure to PM2.5 levels, which could have adverse effects on the human lungs and heart. Further, increased levels of PM2.5 are reported to have a severe effect on the ecosystem and are considered a major air pollutant with the most significant adverse health effects.