The three types of ventilators, PRANA, VaU, and SVASTA, were developed by the ISRO, aiming to transfer the technology to industries for clinical use.
PRANA-Programmable Respiratory Assistance for the Needy Aid is a low-cost and portable critical care ventilator based on the automated compression of an Artificial Manual Breathing Unit bag. It has a sophisticated control system that includes an airway pressure sensor, flow sensor, oxygen sensor, servo actuator, and expiration and PEEP control valves.
It supports both invasive and non-invasive ventilation modes and would be ''capable of giving mandatory breaths (controlled by ventilator)'' and ''spontaneous breaths (controlled by the patient).'' For safe ventilation of the patient, a robust algorithm has been used, which raises the alarm and opens safety valves to prevent asphyxia, barotrauma, and apnea. If there is a wrong or improper connection of the ventilation circuit or accidental disconnection of the hose or sensors, an alarm would be raised.
The second ventilator developed by ISRO was an ICU grade positive pressure mechanical ventilator known as Ventilation assist Unit(VaU) that can help or replace spontaneous breathing in distressed respiratory patients. It comes with an intuitive Human Machine Interface(HMI) system that allows the operator to set and monitor various ventilation parameters. It's configured to operate on invasive and non-invasive ventilator mode and alerts the operator through HMI.
ISRO has developed a gas-powered ventilator named Space Ventilator Aided System for Trauma Assistance(SVASTA), a primary mode for non-invasive ventilation. It would be helpful for first-line treatment in an emergency and could be used inside the vehicles. In the primary method of operation, to accommodate varying tidal volumes, the system can use pressure control ventilation (PCV).
All three ventilators prototypes were developed at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram, and have undergone in-house tests and evaluation. The agency is willing to hand over the technology to public sector undertakings, industries, or startups to manufacture these medical ventilators.
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