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The world's first democratically elected Communist government is the EMS Namboothiripad government of Kerala in 1957.

Kerala's Communist Party of India was the world's first Communist government elected in 1957, which was headed by E. M. S. Namboodiripad.

Kerala's Communist Party of India was the world's first Communist government elected in 1957, which was headed by E. M. S. Namboodiripad.The Communist Party of India in Kerala won the Assembly election held in 1957 and formed a government with eleven councils of ministers with the support of five independent candidates. In 1957 Communist Party of India emerged as the largest single party in the Assembly with 60 seats out of 126. For the first time in the world's history, the Communist party in India won democratically as a single party. Shri E. M. S. Namboodiripad, leader of the Communist Party, was sworn in on April 5, 1957, as Chief Minister of Kerala. Later, The government was dismissed by the Congress Central government on July 31, 1959, due to an agitation known as the 'liberation struggle.'

On the other hand, the Sammarinese Communist Party (PCS) in San Marion is the other elected Communist government that ruled from 1945 to 1957. The head of state is a committee (council) of two captains-regent: Sammarinese Communist Party (PCS) and Socialist Party of San Marino (PSSM). However, the two parties allied to rule San Marino. The coalition lasted from 1945 to 1957. On September 18, 1957, the coalition lost its majority, and the tenure of the assembly ended on October 1, 1957. In 1990 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Sammarinese Communist Party renounced communism and restructured it as the Sammarinese Democratic Progressive Party (PPDS).

Therefore it is clear that the Communist Party of India in Kerala, under the leadership of Shri. E.M.S. Namboothiripad is the first single party to form a democratically elected communist government in the world.

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